Virtis and FTS Systems, SP Scientific brands, have authored a highly informative reference white paper :
|Title:||Basic Principles Of Freeze Drying (4.6-Mb)|
Stone Ridge?? NY, USA & Ipswich, UK?? –?? Freeze drying, also known as lyophilization, is a process whereby a product is rendered chemically inactive by freezing, and the ice is then removed by sublimination with the intent of being able to store the product at a higher temperature than the original freezing point, while retaining chemical inactivity.
Lyophilization requires the development of a unique recipe or cycle based on the thermal and physical characteristics of the product along with consideration of temperature and pressure relationships, phase changes and heat transfer.
A basic understanding of the theory behind freeze drying is essential for any scientist to begin to design a working lyophilization process.
This authoritative new white paper provides an overview of all of the steps involved in freeze drying including product freezing, primary drying (sublimation) and secondary drying (desorption).
Also introduced are the concepts of critical temperature (eutectic and glass transition), thermal treatment (annealing), vapor pressure of ice, product collapse, determination of completion of primary drying and cycle optimization.
Common freeze dryer equipment designs are reviewed along with their typical components and sub-systems.
To access a copy of ‘Basic Principles of Freeze Drying’ – available in English, Chinese, French, German, Portuguese or Spanish – please visit www.spscientific.com/LyoLearn-Tech-Brief.aspx
SP Scientific (www.spscientific.com) is a leading manufacturer of laboratory-to-production scale freeze dryers / lyophilizers, centrifugal evaporators and concentrators, thermal control system and glassware washers. The company is comprised of well-known brands including VirTis??, FTS???, Genevac?? and Hotpack??. SP Scientific has ISO 9001:2008 registered production facilities in the USA and Europe.
SP Scientific Inc.
3538 Main Street
Stone Ridge?? NY 12484 USA
Europe / Asia
Ipswich?? IP1 5AP
tel:?? +44 1473-240000